SYLLABUS FOR THE CET
For the, exact portions/syllabus for the current year, check your CET Brochure.
CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS
Chromosomes: Morphology, Structure and number (haploidy, diploidy. polyploidy and aneuploidy)
Down's syndrome, Turner's syndrome and Klinefelter's syndrome.
Ultrastructure of the chromosome Nucleosomes, (Nu bodies) Centromere, Kinetochore, Telomere,
Euchromatin and heterochromatin; Salivary and lampbrush chromosomes.
Nucleic Acids: Occurrence, chemical composition, duplex model of DNA.
A brief account of DNA duplication; its importance as genetic material, RNA A brief account of
structure and functions of rRNA, tRNA and mRNA, transcription of mRNA. Concept of gene - a brief
account of gene structure - Lacoperon concept.
Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis:
Gregor Johann Mendel and His Work On Pea Plants: Laws of inheritance (Law of Segregation and Law
of independent assortment) Monohybrid and dihybrid pattern of inheritance, Incomplete dominance
(e.g. Mirabilis jalapa).
Multiple allelism Descripiion of blood groups: A, B, AB and O, Mention of Rh factor and its
significance - inheritance of blood groups.
Sex Determination: Concept of autosomes and allosomes. Mechanism of sex determination by XX and
XY methods in Drosophila and human beings (Genic balance theory not expected); Sex determination
in plants (eg. Melandrium) Sex linked inheritance with respect to X-linked genes (eg. eye colour
in Drosophila and coulur blindness and haemophilia in human beings). Inheritance of Y-linked
genes (eg. hypertrichosis).
Genetic Diseases: Phenylketonuria, sickle cell anaemia, Haemophilia and Albinism.
Biotechnology: Concept of Biotechnology. Genetic engineering- plasmid as a vector (eg. PUC 18 or
pbr 322) Gene cloning - insulin production: Genetic finger printing. Brief account of plant
tissue culture. Improvement of crop plants (wheat and rice). General applications of
HISTOLOGY AND PLANT ANATOMY
Histology: Meristems, Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Sclerenchyma and Vascular tissues. Types of
Plant Anatomy: Internal structures of dicot root (e.g. Helianthus), monocot root (eg. Maize),
Dicot stem (eg. Helianthus), Monocot stem (eg. Maize), Dorsiventral leaf (eg. Helianthus) and
Isobilateral leaf (eg. Maize). Secondary growth in dicot stem.
[Note: All these internal structures can be studied in practical classes with the help of visual
aids like charts]
Significance of water for life, concept of imbibition, diffusion, osmosis, cohesion, osmotic
potential, turgor pressure (pressure potential), water potential (water potentia = osmotic
potential - pressure potential), Plasmolysis, deplasmolysis; Experiments to demonstrate osmosis -
Potato osmoscope and Thistle funnel experiments [Experiments can be demonstrated in practical
Absorption of Water: A brief account of the mechanism of water absorption and mineral absorption
(carrier concept in brief).
Ascent of Sap: Structure involved and a brief account of mechanism (pulsatory theory,
Transpiration pull theory and Root pressure theory).
Loss of Water: Transpiration and Guttation: Structures involved; structure of the stomatal
apparatus, mechanism of stomatal movement (starch hydrolysis theory and proton concept).
Experiments: Gonong's and Farmer's potometers with calculations.
Translocation of Organic Solutes: Structure involved; Mechanism (Transcellular streaming and Mass
Concept of Bioenergy and its involvement in plant growth and development.
Photosynthesis: Ultrastructure of the chloroplast: Existence of photosystems; Definition of
photosynthesis; Mechanism of photosynthesis light and Dark reactions (C3 pathway).
Factors --- Law of limiting factors, Temperature, light, carbon dioxide and water
Experiments: Light screen, Evolution of O2, Mohl's half leaf experiment and necessity of
chlorophyll for photosynthesis. [ Note: Experiments can be studied in the practical classes.]
Respiration: Ultrastructure of mitochondrion as a seat of respiration; Definition of respiration
- Types of respiration, Respiration Quotient [RQ]. Mechanism of aerobic and anaerobic
respirations; Pasteur's effect; A brief account of external and interna1 factors; Fermentation as
in industrial process.
Experiments: Evolution of CO2, Ganong's simple respiroscope. Thermos flask experiment and Kuhne's
fermentation tube. Experiment to demonstrate anaerobic respiration. [Note: Experiments can be
studied in the practical classes.J
Definition, Regions of growth in the plant body, phases of growth, growth curve, measurement of
growth rate by using Arc auxanometer with calculations. [Note: Expcriment can be studied in
Factors: External factors (Light, temperature). Internal factors - plant hormones (Auxins,
Gibberellins, Ethylene and ABA). Application of phytohormones in agriculture and horticulture
INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY:
Definition of Ecology, Autoecology, Synecology, Ecological units (species, population, community,
ecosystem and Biosphere).
Ecosystem: Classification, structural and functional components of an Ecosystem with pond
ecosystem (Aquatic ecosystem) and Tropical deciduous forest (Terrestrial ecosytem) as examples.
Energy flow in an ecosytem.
Trophiclevels, food chain, food web, ecological pyramids (of number, biomass and energy),
inverted pyramid of number in a parasitic food chain.
Biogeochemical cycles (eg. carbon cycle, Nitrogen cycle, sulphur cycle and phosphorus cycles).
Environmental Problems: Human population explosion and pollution (Air, water and soil
pollulions), sources of pollution (Automobiles, industries, power plants, field burning, waste
incinerations, pesticides, radioactive wastes and sewage); Effects of pollution and controlling
Development and Preservation of Ecosystems: Soil conservation methods. Afforestation,
conservation of wild life (setting up of National parks, sanctuaries and zoos and legislation),
MAN IN HEALTH & DISEASE
Tissues: Basic types, location and functions,
(a) Simple: Squamous, Cuboidal, Columnar, Ci1iated and Glandular.
(b) Compound: Stratified squamous.
Areolar, Adipose, Cartilage (hyaline, fibrous and elastic), Bone (mammalian).
- Muscular: Striated, Non-striated and Cardiac.
- Blood: Components
- Nervous: Neuron (multipolar Myelinated neuron.
- Histology of human small intestine to illustrate to organisation of tissues.
- Structure of the different part of the human digestive system.
- Process of digestion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the human alimentary canal.
- A brief account of jaundice, hyperacidiity and ulcer.
- Homeostasis - Definition, Meaning of internal environment.
Example: Homeostatic functions of liver and pancreas in the regulation of blood sugar. Diabetes
- Structure of human heart (V.S.), Mechanism of working of heart.
- Types of Heart: Myogenic and Neurogenic - Definition with example.
- Origin and conduction of heartbeat.
Blood pressure, hepertension (arteriosclerosis) & hypotension.
- Abnormalities in the heart:
Heart enlargement (cardiomegaly)
(a) Left ventricular hypertrophy due to aortic regurgitation, obesity and high blood pressure
(b) Right ventricular hypertrophy (corpulmonale) due to hypertension in pulmonary circulation
Defects in the valves - mitral stenosis and aortic stenosis.
Septal holes - Atrial septal defect (ASD) and Ventricular Septal defect (VSD). Cyanosis (BlueBaby).
- Structure of the human respiratory system.
- Mechanism of respiration:
Breathing, external respiration, (gaseous exchange at alveoli),
internal respiration (transport of respiratory gases) and cellular respiration.
- Disorders of respiratory system: Lung cancer, allergic disorders like hay fever (Rhinitis),
asthama and bronchitis (Effects of smoking and pollutants are to be emphasized).
- Gross structure of the nephron, formation of urine.
- Disorder of the excretory system, renal failure and kidney stone formation, Significance of
- General organisation of human brain (sagittal section), functions of various topographical
areas of cerebrum & structure of spinal cord (T.S.)
- A brief study of the endocrine functions of pituitary
- Disorders of the nervous system: Epilepsy, paralysis & haemorrhage causes and effects.
- Effect of alcohol and narcotic drugs on the body. Efforts to counter the drug menace.
CONTINUITY OF LIFE
- General account of gametogenesis.
- Strcture of generalised ovum and Sperm.
- Types and mechanism of fertilization.
- A brief account of early development upto the formation of primary germ layers in Frog (a
- Listing the derivatives of germ layers.
- Structure of the sperm and Graafian follicle (to be studied in practicals.)
- A brief note on fertilization implantation, placenta and role of sex hormones.
- Need for birth control - a survey of family plnning methods.
- Infertility control - Test tube babies (G.I.F.T.I.V.F. and E.T. techniques).
- Sexually transmitted diseases - Gonorrhea, Syphilis and AIDS - causes and prevention.
ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF LIFE
OR IGIN OF LIFE
- Concept of abiogenesis and biogenesis
- Theory of chemical evolution of lice, Miller's experiment.
- A brief survey of Darwinism and Mutation Theory
- Concept of Neo-Darwinism: - Hardy Weinberg law, source of Variations - 1. Sexual reproduction.
2. Genetic drift. 3. Mutation. 4. Isolation.
ANIMAL RESOURCES AND HUMAN WELFARE
- Utility of cattle (livestock) in agriculture, transport and food.
- Composition of milk
- Important breeds of cattle like Hallikar and Nagapuri
- Cross breeding with breeds like Red Dane, Jersey, Holstein and its advantages.
- Superovulation and embryo transplantation
- Importance of cattle in leather industry, biogas, fertilzers and gelatin.
- Importance of eggs in combating protein malnutrition.
- Poultry as a subsidiary source of income.
- Importance of high yielding varieties like white leg horn and Rhode island.
- Table varieties like Plymouth rock, New hamphshire and breeds 1ike Giriraj.
- Introduction to sericulture as an agro industry.
- Importance of mulberry cultivation.
- Life cycle of silk moth.
- Varieties of silk (mulberry and non- mulberry).
- Byproducts of Silk industry.
- Economics of fish farming
- Inland fisheries.
· - Food fishes of Karnataka: Labeo, catla Cirrhina, Rohu and Catfishes (only the names shall be
Syllabus from PUC-I / XI Std. or equiv.
1. DIVERSITY OF PLANT LIFE ON EARTH
· Introduction and definition of life.
· Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.
· Classification of life forms: Details of 5 kingdom classification. (Monera, Protista, Mycota,
Metaphyta & Metazoa) up to the level of classes.
2. KINGDOM: MONERA
· Introduction and classification of viruses - understanding, general structures and
reproductions of TMV and Bacteriophages. Mention of viral diseases in plants (Mosaic, Yellowing,
Vein clearing diseases) and in man (brain fever, polio, mumps, measels, small pox, aids and
· Introduction to Cyanobacteria (blue green algae and bacteria): Classification
· Bacteria - Occurrence and classification based on forms, flagellation and mode of nutrition
with examples - ultrastructure of a bacterial cell - reproduction (fission endospore formation,
genetic recombination through conjugation, transformation, and transduction in brief ) -
beneficial and harmful effects.
· Nostoc - Occurrence, structure of the colony and the filament - Reproduction by fragmentation,
hormogonia, akinetes and heterocysts - economic importance of blue green algae.
3. KINGDOM: PROTISTA
· Algae - Classification with atleast two examples in each class. General economic importance of
· Diatoms - occurrence, structure and reproduction in pennate diatoms. (see Protozoans under
4. KINGDOM: MYCOTA (Fungi) - classification
· (Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes) with two examples in each class
- general economic importance of fungi.
· Yeasts: Occurrence, structure and reproduction
· Agaricus: Occurrence, structure and reproduction
· Mushroom culture technique in brief.
5. KINGDOM: METAPHYTA (plantae)
· Introduction and classification.
· Bryophytes: Classification with two examples in each class.
· Polytrichum - occurrence and external morphology of gametophyte - asexual and sexual
reproductions ( developmental stages of sex organs and sporophyte not expected) - Alternation of
· Pteridophytes : Introduction and classification.
· Nephrolepis: Occurrence, external morphology of sporophyte - vegetative, asexual and sexual
reproductions - alternation of generation.
· Aymnosperms: Introduction and classification.
· Cycas: Occurrence, external morphology of sporophyte - importance of corolloid roots and
transfusion tissue in the leaflet, egetative, asexual and sexual reproductions - alternation of
· Angiosperms: Introduction, parts of a typical angiosperm eg: Brassica juncea (mustard plant).
Difference between a dicot and a monocot plant.
· Root system: Features and functions of tap root and adventitious roots, root modifications for
storage, mechanical support, respiration, floating and sucking.
· Shoot system: Features and functions of the stem, stem modifications - underground, sub aerial
· Leaf: Parts of a typical leaf - Dicot leaf (eg: Hibiscus) Monocot leaf (eg: Zea mays)
· Stipules - free, lateral, interpetiolar, ochreate, adnate and foliaceous types.
· Phyllotaxy - definition and types (alternate, opposite and whorl).
· Venation - definition and types - Reticulate venation (pinnately and palmately) and parallel
venation ((pinnately and palmately) .
· Compound leaves: Pinnately compound (unipinnately, bipinnately, tripinnately and decompound)
Palmately (unifoliately, bifioliately, trifoliately and multifoliately) leaves. Differences
between simple and compound leaves.
· Leaf modifications: Phyllodes (Acacia melanoxylon), tendrils (Smilax and Gloriosa),
insectivorous plants (Drosera,Nepenthes and Utricularia), vegetative reproduction (Bryophyllum).
· Inflorescence: Definition and classification (Racemose, cymose and special types).
· Flower: Definition, parts of a typical flower eg: Tribulus. Detailed description of flowers in
· Bracts: Foliaceous (eg: Adathoda), Petaloid (eg Bougainvillea), involucre of bracts (eg Tridax
or sunflower) and spathe (eg Aroid).
· Calyx: Epicalyx, calyx in (Mussaenda), pappus (Tridax), persistent calyx (Solannum).
· Corolla: Forms of corolla - Cruciform, Papilionaceous, tubular, infundibuliform, rotate and
· Aestivations: Definition and types (valvate, imbricate, ascendingly and descendingly imbricate
and contorted aestivations).
· Androecium: Parts of a typical stamen, cohesion in stamens (monadelphous, diadelphous and
· Syngenesious anthers and synandrous stamens.
· Adhesion of floral parts (eg epipetalous stamens.) Structure of a mature anther.
· Gynoecium: Parts of a pistil: superior, inferior and semisuperior ovaries: apocarpous and
syncarpous ovaries; mono, bi, tri, tetra, penta and multicarpellary ovaries; placentation -
definition and types (marginal, basal, axile, parietal and free central placentations) structure
of an anatropous ovule.
· Pollination: Definition, geitonogamy, xenogamy, self pollination - cleistogamy and homogamy;
cross pollination- contrivances (dicliny, dichogamy, self sterility, herkogamy and heterostyly).
Types of cross pollination basing on agents - hydrophily, anemophily and zoophily (entamophily
and chiropterophily). Special adaptation in salvia - significance of cross pollination.
· Fertilization: Definition, double fertilization and triple fusion; porogamy, mesogamy and
chalazogamy - post fertilization changes (development stages of embryo and endosperm are not
· Fruits: Definition, true and false fruits, classification and study of fruits with examples.
6. TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS
· Introduction, importance of taxonomy, contributions of Linnaeus to Taxonomy in brief; Engler
and Prantl system of classification.
· Study of the following families with the plants of economic importance under these families;
Liliaceae, arecaceae, malvaceae, fabaceae, apocyanaceae and solanaceae.
7. INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY
· Definition of the term biology: Collection of useful knowledge for the understanding of man in
health and disease. Understanding the relationship between man and nature, wiser use of natural
resources. Contribution of Indian scientists to biology: Charaka, Sushrutha, Parashara, J C Bose
, P Maheswari, B G L Swamy and Dr H G Khorana.
· Branches of biology: Cell biology, taxonomy, physiology, anatomy, histology, palaentology
evolution, genetics, Eugenics, Developmental Biology, Environmental Biology and Ethology -
Interdependence of biology with other disciplines - Biophysics, Biochemistry and Psychology.
· Careers and scope for biology students: Anthropology, Agronomy, Pathology Entomology,
Fisheries, Poultry, Microbiology, Sericulture, Agriculture, Forestry, Diary Technology, Pharmacy,
Veterinary Sciences, Food technology and Genetic engineering.
8. DIVERSITY OF ANIMAL LIFE
· Principles of animal taxonomy: Principles of binomial nomenclature, Linnaean hierarchy -
kingdom to species.
· Major animal phyla
· General characters of invertebrata - Phyla and classification upto classes with suitable
examples - Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda,
Mollusca and Enchinodermata.
· General characters of vertebrate with suitable examples classes of phylum chordata - from
Pisces to Mammala.
9. TYPE STUDY
· Cockroach - As an example of organ grade of construction and successful terrestrial animal.
· External features with special reference to head, mouth parts, wings and legs.
· Study of digestive, respiratory, circulatory and excretory systems
· Study of nervous system
· General organisation of reproductive system (male and female) and life history.
10. UNITY OF LIFE: BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
· Carbohydrates: Definition, nature and classification into mono, oligo and poly saccharides with
suitable examples; biological significance.
· Proteins: Amino acids and peptide bonds, definition, nature and classification into simple,
conjugated and derived proteins with suitable examples; biological significance.
· Lipids: Definition, nature and classification into simple lipids, compound lipids and steriods
with suitable examples; biological significance.
· Enzymes: Nature, classification, properties, mechanism of action and importance in biological
· Nucleic acids: Types, location and functions (detailed structure and role in protein synthesis
to be studied in Second PU Botany portion).
11. STUDY OF THE CELL
· Generalised account of the ultrastructure of an animal cell and its organelles.
· Difference between plant cell and animal cell, fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane; transport
functions (pinocytosis phagocytosis and active transport ) occurrence, structure, transport, and
functions of endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, lysosomes, centrosome and mitochondria (details of
Kerb's cycle and ETS excluded).
· Nucleus: Components and functions. Gross structure of chromosomes
12. CELL DIVISION
· A brief account of amitosis, mitosis and meiosis (emphasis on meosis - 1)
· Cancer biology - Cancer characteristics and causes, listing of types of cancer like sarcoma,
Carcinoma, Lymphoma and Leukemia with suitable examples; preventive measures.
INDEX PAGE OR go TO P/C/M Syllabus